Understanding Received Signal Strength (RSSI) In Your WiFi Network

Are you annoyed with your WiFi signal? Have you unplugged, rebooted, and shaken your devices trying to improve the connection to no avail? 

We understand your frustration, and our Core cabling and wireless team can help. 

What is an RSSI?

RSSI, or “Received Signal Strength Indicator,” is a measurement of how well your device can hear a signal. In other words, RSSI is a value for determining a good wireless connection.

What is dBm?

While also a measure of signal strength, dBm is unlike RSSI as it is an absolute number representing power levels in milliwatts. 

RSSI is only a relative index of power. 

Overview of Signal Strengths 

The best signal you can receive is -30 dBm. -90 dBm is unusable:

Need Help With WiFi Strength?

Core Cabling now offers Ruckus Wireless, Cisco, Ubiquiti and other vendors wireless network infrastructure for both indoor and outdoor commercial areas. If your WiFi strength is suffering, consider upgrading to our best solution yet! Let’s get started! 


Call to set up your consultation with one of our Wireless Experts from. 


We will help determine your priority areas, trouble areas, number of access points needed, where best to place them to provide the coverage you need.


The price for installing a commercial-grade Wi-Fi solution scales depending on the number of access points needed for coverage and capacity. 

As long as you have an Internet connection, we will take care of the rest.

Contact CORE Cabling Today!

For more information, Contact Core Cabling today!

What’s The Benefit of Channels 1, 6, and 11?

Are you frustrated with your wireless?

Have you increased your monthly spend for high-speed service but you aren’t noticing any difference in the quality of your connection?

You may not be aware that selecting the right WiFi channel plays a large role in your coverage and performance.

What’s special about the numbers 1, 6, and 11?

Channels 1, 6, and 11 are special numbers in the wireless world as they are the only channels that do not overlap.

In the 2.4GHz band, these channels help to ensure your wireless network is set up and working correctly and will continue to work with ease on 2.4GHz radio band.

Why do some routers have bad connections?

A major problem with wireless routers is that many of them select a channel for you at random or they are set to AutoChannel, which can slow down your WiFi and interrupt your connection. Therefore, it’s always a good idea to manually select your channel – 1, 6, or 11.

Understanding The Differences In WiFi Interference

Co-Channel: Co-channel interference or CCI is crosstalk from two different radio transmitters using the same channel. Co-channel interference can be caused by many factors from weather conditions to administrative and design issues.

There are only three channels that don’t overlap: 1, 6 and 11.

Source: MetaGeek

Contact CORE Cabling

So, there you have it! For more information, Contact Core Cabling today!

How Will LTE/5G Change Business?

As technology continues to evolve, it’s important to stay current with the tools we utilize to remain successful in our respective industries or professions.

As was the case when service providers rolled out the 4G in 2014, the promise of 5G has created ripples among cell providers since deployment began in 2019.

Major cell phone networks are already testing 5G in the United States and other parts of the world. However, 5G likely won’t be available to the general public in Canada until 2020.

But, what will 5G mean for Canadian businesses?

The Difference Between 4G & 5G

In short, 5G will be:

  • Faster
  • Smarter
  • More Efficient

Reduced Communication Delays

5G technology will reduce latency, allowing multiple online devices to communicate better. This is critical for businesses that depend on IoT, various different types of devices, and/or sensors to streamline solutions and communication.

The Future of Technology

According to a report from Ericsson, there will be 18 billion IoT devices by 2022, with 1.5 billion of them operating on cellular connections.

Have you considered how self-driving cars and connected home products of the future will function? These products require stronger signals too.

Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality are also on the rise, with people utilizing these technologies both for business and at home.
VR and AR are also only as effective as they are seamless in the way they are experienced, uninterrupted by delay. Therefore, brands such as gaming companies who are developing these technologies demand greater efficiency that these reality systems require for best use.

Without an effortless, continuous connection, these products simply hold no value, and tech companies cannot afford to let their hard work and investments go to waste.

Cellphone Upgrades To 5G

Some cell phone towers that currently have 4G-LTE radio antennas can be upgraded because 5G includes the same “spectrum” as 4G.

“Spectrum” is the radio signals that cell towers use—think of it like channels on your FM radio. 5G will eventually bring access to more radio channels, but right now it uses the older channels that 4G does.

Most cell phone towers can be upgraded to 5G but need to have the proper hardware first. Devices like your smartphone that support 4G-LTE can’t be upgraded by switching out hardware—you’ll need to buy a new phone.

Source: WhistleOut

When Will 5G Come To Canada?

Bell, Rogers, and Telus are all testing 5G and are currently investing in upgrades to the current 4G-LTE network. These upgrades are set to roll out in 2020, but specific dates have not yet been announced.

Contact CORE Cabling

Contact Core Cabling today to learn more about how your business can prepare for 5G in 2020. We’ll update you as we learn more information about 5G launching in Canada.

The 7 Biggest Wi-Fi Antenna Mistakes You Can Make

When was the last time you paid thought to the value of your devices’ antenna?

Do you know exactly what it does or why it matters?

Have you considered its placement and how it impacts your experience?

“Antennas are undervalued and poorly understood elements in WLAN networks.” – Don Cook, 7Signal

Recall Apple’s “Antennagate”

Apple’s antennagate scandal of 2010 was the result of poor antenna placement and design on the iPhone 4. When people would hold the phone in a specific way, signal would weaken.

During the scandal, Steve Jobs was sure to comment that antenna problems are not unique to the iPhone or Apple. However, many people were upset with this issue and suggested there should be a massive recall.

Check out the video below for a full recap:

Problems With Antennas To Avoid

As seen with the iPhone 4, Wi-Fi performance can be hugely impacted by the position of an antenna. However, the more network leaders are of these concerns, the more equipped they will be to prevent them.

Explore antenna placement warnings below:

Thick Walls

When access points with omni-directional antennas are placed next to a thick wall, half of the antenna’s gain can be lost as the antenna will try to pick up signals from the wall.

High Ceilings

Issues can arise when access points with standard omni-directional antennas are placed on a high ceilings above 13 feet.

Ceiling Panel Placement

Don’t place antenna on top of a ceiling panel made of unknown material with ɛr > 1.

Placement Above Metal

You should never place access points integrated omni-directional antennas above or around metal air ducts, grids, and large lamp reflectors.

Metallic Paint

It is a bad idea to paint antennas with metallic paint as signals can be disrupted due to the conductive surface.

Terminal Placement

Be mindful of metal. When laptops and other devices are placed in metal enclosures, the proximity of the conductive material causes antenna detuning.


Avoid sticking antennas partially through a small hole in a metal ceiling panel, AP cover, or metal grid.

Contact CORE Cabling

Contact Core Cabling today to learn more about how antennas should be installed.

What Is WIFI6?

Wi-Fi 6 is the next-generation standard in WiFi technology by Wi-Fi Alliance. Wi-Fi 6 is the same Wi-Fi we’ve always used, just faster and more efficient.

Wi-Fi Versions

  • Wi-Fi 4 is 802.11n (2009).
  • Wi-Fi 5 is 802.11ac (2014)
  • Wi-Fi 6 is the new version, also known as 802.11ax. (2019)

Why do we need Wi-Fi 6?


Wi-Fi 6 was built in response to the growing number of devices in the world. In addition to phones and computers, we now require access to VR equipment, video gaming systems, streaming 4K movies, etc. Therefore, a more robust, faster Wi-Fi is in demand.

Crowded Areas

Wi-Fi 6 is also better equipped to perform in crowded tech areas. For example, you may have noticed your Wi-Fi signal slows at concerts, amusement parks, convention centres, airports, sports stadiums, and other venues where everyone seems to be trying to connect.
With Wi-Fi 6, this won’t be an issue.

Target Wake Time

Wi-Fi 6 has also led to a new “target wake time” (TWT) which will allow Wi-Fi-enabled devices to have longer battery life as it can preserve energy.

‘When the access point is talking to a device (like your smartphone), it can tell the device exactly when to put its Wi-Fi radio to sleep and exactly when to wake it up to receive the next transmission. This will conserve power, as it means the Wi-Fi radio can spend more time in sleep mode. And that means longer battery life.”@chrisbhoffman

How fast is Wi-Fi 6?

According to C-NET’s testing, Wi-Fi 6’s download speed with be roughly 1,000 faster than the current download speed.

Wi-Fi 6 Devices & Updating Networks

Companies are beginning to develop Wi-Fi 6 routers and devices such as Samsung’s Galaxy S 10, iPhone 11. However, these devices aren’t able to unlock their full capacity as internet providers across North America haven’t all made the update yet.

For example, most homes aren’t yet able to support Wi-Fi 6. So, even if you have an iPhone 11, you won’t be able to use the increased download speed until your home network is updated.

So, what’s the point then?

It’s important that the groundwork and foundation for Wi-Fi 6 compatibility is laid now, even if we can’t all use it, so that in the future, when updates have been made, everything works smoothly.

How can I tell if something is Wi-Fi 6 compatible?

If a device is up-to-date with Wi-Fi 6, it will have a symbol on the packaging indicating it is Wi-Fi 6 certification. Wi-Fi 6 certification began on September 16, 2019.

Contact CORE Cabling

Contact Core Cabling today to learn more about the future of Wi-Fi 6 and how you can prepare for the future.

5 Reasons To Use CAT6A For Wi-Fi

Ah, the wonderful world of Ethernet!

While most Wi-Fi installers are extremely familiar with CAT5E and CAT6 cables, we’ve often heard clients and other industry professionals ask:

“What’s the big deal with CAT6A?” and “Why should I upgrade?”

With emerging technologies, and increasing demands, it’s important to keep up. That’s why, in this article, we’re digging in to everything you need to know about high-performance Ethernet cables, the difference between CAT6 and the new and improved CAT6A, and more.

What is a CAT6A Ethernet cable?

A category 6A cable is a recent iteration of gigabit ethernet cabling. The “A” in 6A stands for augmented, symbolizing that CAT6A is improved version of the previous CAT6.

What’s the difference between CAT6 and CAT6A cables?


  • Offers a 10Gbps rating for 30 to 50 metres
  • Capable of supporting data transfer rates of up to 10Gbps at a maximum bandwidth of 250MHz
  • CAT6 is more expensive than CAT5E, but less expensive than CAT6A
  • 22-24 AWG wire gauges

Identifying CAT6: Thinner, less bulky, identity printed on cable jacket.


  • Offers a 10Gbps rating for over 100 metres or 330 feet
  • Capable of supporting data transfer rates of up to 10Gbps at a maximum bandwidth of 500MHz
  • CAT6A is more expensive than CAT6, but is also more advanced
  • 16-20 AWG wire gauges

Identifying CAT6A: Thicker, bulkier, identity printed on cable jacket.

Why is CAT6A the best choice for Wi-Fi cables?

1. Increased Bandwidth

CAT6A supports bandwidth that is twice the amount of CAT6. Longer cables with faster speed provides more flexibility and better performance.

2. Backwards Compatibility

CAT6A is backwards compatible with both CAT6 and CAT5E. However, it is important to note that when utilizing backwards compatibility, speeds will become limited.

3. Built For Industrial Use

CAT6A is thick and strong, making it the ideal solution for tough industrial environments.

4. Reduced Crosstalk

CAT6A features tighter twists and more insulation than the CAT6. Therefore, the CAT6A is able to reduce unwanted crosstalk with a higher degree of efficacy.

5. Cost Effective

CAT6A is considered one of the most cost-effective solutions as it is being developed and designed with forward thinking. Equipped to support future demands, those installing CAT6A are ahead of the curve.

CAT6A is also said to perform similarly to CAT7, but is offered at a lower price point.

What are the cons of CAT6A?

While some perceive the size and weight of the CAT6A cable as a disadvantage, we at CORE Cabling believe that this in no way outweighs the benefits.

Others may also cite termination methods as a con of CAT6A, however, new advancements in technology have reduced termination and installation time.

Contact CORE Cabling Today!

Curious to learn more about the value of CAT6A and our structured cabling services? Give us a call today at 905-235-7755. We look forward to discussing your ethernet options with you!

9 Ideal Locations For Large-Scale Ruckus ZoneFlex Wi-Fi

Are you in need of Wi-Fi solutions that provide a best-in-class experience on a massive scale? Do you need advanced wireless security with robust management?

If so, Ruckus ZoneFlex Wi-Fi may be the best solution for you.

What is Ruckus ZoneFlex Wi-Fi?

Ruckus Cloud Wi-Fi was developed to meet the growing demand for fast and reliable Wi-Fi in a cost effective way. As an ARRIS company, Ruckus supports a broad range of Wi-Fi access points to support a variety of requirements with ease, security, and sophistication.

Who should consider installing Ruckus ZoneFlex Wi-Fi?

Ruckus ZoneFlex Wi-Fi provides reliable, simple-to-use, adaptive technology for large-scale indoor and outdoor deployments such as schools, hotels, stadiums, restaurants, malls, shopping centres, smart cities, freight yards, and small businesses.

Learn more about the nine most ideal locations for large-scale, dynamic Wi-Fi from CORE Cabling below:

1. Schools

Do your teachers, students, and staff need access to secure Wi-Fi throughout the school day? Ruckus is known for its performance in challenging network conditions. In other words, your small IT staff will have no problem keeping pace with this system.

2. Hotels & Resorts

Accessing quick Wi-Fi in a hotel or resort is a priority for many guests traveling abroad, needing to check in with loved ones or with work. Therefore, it’s crucial that high-end accommodations provide the best of the best when it comes to intuitive cloud managed Wi-Fi.

3. Sports Stadiums

Are you challenged with high client density at the big game? With hundreds or even thousands of people uploading photos, checking in, and sharing messages, your brand needs Wi-Fi technology that you can depend on.

4. Small to Medium Sized Businesses

Interested in having customers fill out online surveys? Need access to your social media accounts? Processing payments online? We understand how important it is for you to avoid downtime, which is why Ruckus can be remotely set up within minutes and features a mobile app for anywhere, anytime management and monitoring.

5. Restaurants

With rising customer expectations, it’s now common for restaurant patrons to ask for the Wi-Fi password before digging into their meal. Provide your loyal foodies with easy to access Wi-Fi that will be the ‘cherry on top’ to their fantastic meal.

6. Shipping/Freight Yards

When you’re on the job, you’re too busy to worry about the Wi-Fi, and with Ruckus, you won’t have to. Ruckus Wi-Fi‘s indoor, outdoor, and special purpose access points help to deliver higher productivity.

7. Smart Cities

Ruckus Wi-Fi access points are built to satisfy even the smartest of cities. Get the best of both worlds with simplified cloud Wi-Fi management and the best APs in the industry.

8. Shopping Malls

Is the mall you manage Wi-Fi-unfriendly due to high traffic as well as thick and tough building materials? We get it, and we know exactly how Ruckus Cloud Wi-Fi can help to keep shoppers happy and connected.

9. Retail Facilities

Are you managing a broad range of access points across a number of retail facilities? Ruckus Wi-Fi can help to simplify things by enabling your IT team to monitor, optimize, and troubleshoot your networks via a single dashboard.

Contact CORE Cabling Today!

At CORE Cabling, we ensure that the installation of your Ruckus Wi-Fi is seamless for both you, your students, your employees, tenants, and customers.

For more information on Ruckus Wireless Access Points products, design, or installation, please contact Core Cabling today: 905-235-7755.

What is Passive Optical LAN?

The pervasiveness of Internet of Things (IoT) with IP-based edge devices monitoring and controlling HVAC equipment, security devices, and the convergence of voice and data networks is putting a great strain on legacy copper-based Ethernet local area networks in terms of bandwidth.

This problem can be solved by installing networks using fibre optic cable.

This blog post will introduce you to Passive Optical LANs (POLs) also known as Passive Optic Networks (PONs)

Fibre optic networks use light to transmit data over a network. A Passive Optical LAN uses point-to-multipoint fibre cable runs to connect end-points in which unpowered optical splitters are used to enable one single-mode optical fibre cable to serve multiple endpoints.

It is a Layer-2 data link transport medium, consisting of only three major components: an Optical Line Terminal (OLT) at one central location connected by fibre optic cable to a number of Passive Optical Splitters (POS) which are then connected to Optical Network Terminals (ONTs) near the end user workstations as illustrated in the following diagram.

Passive Optical LAN Overview

All the POL optical splitters are passive (hence the name), meaning that no power is required for switching.

Rather, the splitters receive and then split light waves using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) that “divides” the light source into several different colours, each of which is sent along its own separate fibre pathway to an end device.

Power is only needed at the head-end OLT and end point ONT within the network.

Network Components

A typical POL is comprised of three main components connected by one single mode fibre as shown in the following diagram from APOLAN.

In this part, we will examine each of these components in more detail.

Optical Network Terminal (ONT)

The ONT is located at the user end of the POL and is connected to end devices such as computers and IP telephones by standard copper patch cords. The ONT converts the electrical signals it receives from the end device into an optical signal which is then transmitted upstream.

Conversely, the ONT converts downstream optical signals into electrical signals for the end devices. Typically, the ONT is low-voltage device connected to a DC power supply module and can be mounted under a desk, on a wall, in a ceiling or in a rack.

Depending on the application, several ONT configurations are available ranging from 2 to 24 Ethernet ports, multiple analog voice ports, coaxial video ports and wireless support.

Passive Optical Splitter (POS)

As the name suggests, the function of a POS is to split the optical signals into different branches connected to the ONT’s. They require no power – hence the name “passive” – and are typically deployed in above-ceiling fibre zone boxes near end user work areas.

Each POS uses Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) to split the optical signals over the single mode fibre. Communication is bidirectional with upstream signals from the ONTs being transmitted at 1310 nanometers (nm) and downstream signals being sent at 1490 nm.

Several different split ratios are available, typical ones being 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, 2:8, 2:16 and 2:32.

Optical Line Terminal (OLT)

As shown in the diagram, the OLT is installed in the datacenter or main distribution frame (MDF) and is connected to the core switch using traditional Ethernet components. It combines all optical signals from the splitters and converts them back to electrical signals for the core router.

A typical OLT is a chassis device housing modular cards and may support 8 to 72 fibre ports with each port connecting a fibre cable to the splitter. A typical port connects 32 ONTs. Whereas WDM is used to split the downstream optical signals, Time-Division-Multiple-Access (TDMA) is used for upstream traffic to the core switch.

The OLT provides redundant switching, control, and power capability and may also have a range of built-in functionalities such as integrated Ethernet bridging, VLAN capability, end-user authentication and security filtering.

Comparing Passive Optical LANs and Copper LANs

As discussed in the previous two parts, a Passive Optical LAN (POL) transmits data through a strand of single mode fibre from a head-end component called an Optical Line Terminal (OLT) through Passive Optical Splitters (POS’s) to end-user interfaces called Optical Network Terminals (ONT’s.)

By contrast, a traditional Ethernet LAN requires core switches in the Main Distribution Frame (MDF’s) connected to distribution switches located throughout the facility in Intermediate Distribution Frames (IDF’s) by copper cable.

The following diagram compares a traditional copper LAN on the left with a POL architecture shown on the right. Elements of both networks above and below the red lines are the same. In the POL architecture, the core and distribution (or edge) switches are replaced with OLTs, passive optical splitter(s) and ONTs.

Essentially the “traffic directing” function performed by active switching gear on the left has been replaced with passive optical splitters on the right. The Ethernet switches are typically installed in a telecommunications closet along with patch panels and require power and cooling.

Conversely, the splitters aren’t powered, don’t need cooling and are small enough to be installed in ceiling, thereby eliminating the need for a telecom closet.

The following photo from APOLAN illustrates how significant the space differential is between a copper LAN and a POL.

As shown on the left, the rack space required by the POL equipment is about one-sixth that required by the Ethernet equipment while providing connectivity to 8.5 times as many ports. The photo on the right compares one strand of single-mode fibre with 128 copper cables.

POL provides significant space-savings advantages versus traditional copper-based approaches as well as lower cost.

Passive Optical LAN Advantages

The previous sections have introduced Passive Optical LANs (POLs), examined the three main components of a POL and compared a POL to a traditional copper-based Ethernet LAN.

This last chapter will review the financial and technical advantages and benefits that a POL offers over traditional networks.

Cost Savings

Let’s begin with the most important advantage – cost savings. The Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for a POL is typically 40% – 60% less than a comparable Ethernet installation.

This is illustrated in the following table which is based on a recent case study by Tellabs an APOLAN founding member.

All figures in Canadian dollars.

Ethernet LANPassive Optical LANSavingsSavings %
Total Number of Ports:17281704  
Active Equipment Costs:$756.10$293.80$462.3061.1%
Structured Cabling Costs:$919.80$235.70$684.1074.4%
Capital Expenditure:$1,675.90$529.50$1,146.4068.4%
Annual Support Costs:$54.10$7.10$47.0086.9%
Annual Power Costs:$7.60$3.20$4.4057.9%
Operating Expenses / Year:$61.70$10.30$51.4083.3%

These substantial cost savings alone are a compelling reason to deploy POLs.

Additional Benefits of POLs

However, there are even more benefits.

  • Because a POL is a fibre-based network, data transmission speeds are substantially higher than in a copper-based LAN, measured in Tbps as opposed to Gbps.
  • The length of cable runs is not limited by the 90m rule but can be up to 20km.
  • Fibre cable is immune to EMI and RFI.
  • Because fibre cable is virtually impossible to tap into, a POL offers increased security.
  • Substantial floor space savings are achieved because POLs don’t require telecom rooms or wiring closets.
  • Fibre cable has a much longer lifespan than copper, making it more future-proof.
  • Moves, adds and changes are easier because of the simpler, flatter architecture of a POL.
  • It is easier to get a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification because of the passive, non-energy consuming nature of a POL and the elimination of cooling requirements.

Simply put, a Passive Optical LAN gives a bigger bang for fewer bucks.

Give us a call!

At CORE we can help you design a POL. If you are considering upgrading your existing network, building a new one, or just want more information about Passive Optical LANs, please email ed@corecabling.ca or call 905.235.7955.

*This blog is based on several white papers which can be found in the Resources section of The Association for Passive Optical LAN.

For further reference, go to www.BICSI.org and find the presentation “Fundamentals of Passive Optical LAN” in the conference archives.

Finally, BrightTALK has several TIA/FOTC webinars pertaining to POLs (as well as many other topics) which can be downloaded from their website.

Written by:
Michael Lundgren, P.Eng. Engineering Manager, CORE Cabling Inc.

Single-Mode Or Multi-Mode Fibre Optic Cable?

When you choose to install fibre optic cabling, you have some choices. Let’s understand both the single-mode and multi-mode fibre optic cable types.

1. Single-mode: single path through the fibre

Singlemode cable is a single strand of glass fibre with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission. It has a relatively narrow diameter, through which only one mode will propagate (typically 1310 or 1550 nm). It carries a higher bandwidth than multi-mode fibre but requires a light source with a narrow spectral width.

Single-mode fibre is used in many applications where data is sent at multi-frequency (WDM Wave-Division-Multiplexing) so only one cable is needed- (single-mode on one single fibre). It gives you a higher transmission rate and up to 50 times more distance than multi-mode, but it also costs more. Single-mode fibre has a much smaller core than multi-mode.

The small core and single light-wave virtually eliminate any distortion that could result from overlapping light pulses, providing the least signal attenuation and the highest transmission speeds of any fibre cable type.

2. Multi-mode: multiple paths through the fibre

Multi-mode fibre has a little bit bigger diameter, with common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component. In most applications in which Multi-mode fibre is used, 2 fibres are used (WDM is not normally used on multi-mode fibre).

Multi-mode fibre gives you high bandwidth at high speeds (10 to 100MBS – to 275m to 2km) over medium distances. Light waves are dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable’s core typically 850 or 1300nm.

Typical multi-mode fibre core diameters are 50, 62.5, and 100 micrometres. However, in long cable runs (greater than 3000 feet [914.4 meters), multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission, so designers now call for single-mode fibre in new applications using Gigabit and beyond.

What option should I choose?

Single-mode fibre and multi-mode fibre are not compatible. You cannot mix multi-mode and single-mode fibre between two endpoints and the optics are not compatible either.

In most circumstances, multi-mode fibre is a more cost-effective choice for data centre applications where cable runs are less than 550 meters. Single-mode fibre is best used for distances greater than 550 meters. Besides the transmission distance, the overall cost should also be taken into consideration.

Even though single-mode fibre cable is less expensive than multi-mode cable, the cost of transmission devices for single-mode is much higher. Over the last number of years, we have seen an increase in the use of single-mode fibre where multi-mode would have been the preferred choice. It seems that communications consultants, engineers and equipment manufacturers are looking ahead and addressing the need for higher bandwidth and speeds in preparation for future technologies.

Fibre Certification, Trouble-Shooting and OTDR Testing

Installing a high-end fibre optic cabling system begins with the best materials, the best installation practices and the best test equipment.

Without proper test results, you will never know how good your fibre optic cable is. Taking the time to do OTDR testing on your fibre optic cable will tell you if the cable has been installed correctly.

CORE Cabling uses industry-leading materials and test equipment like the Fluke Versiv and the Viavi OTDR.

What is involved in trouble-shooting and testing?

Many factors come into play when determining whether or not your fibre cable has been installed in a professional manner. Things like the number of bends or the severity of a bend can reduce the performance of a fibre optic cable.

Fibre connectors, or terminations, can also greatly affect the quality of a fibre installation. Improper cleaving techniques, dirt and dust can leave your fibre optic installation less than perfect.

Using industry-leading fibre optic test equipment shows you where the problems are and will guarantee that your investment will perform like it was designed to.

Once we have completed your fibre optic cable installation, CORE Cabling will provide you with test results for all installed cables, as well as a 20-year warranty for every cable we install.

LTE/4G – Is Your Business Prepared?

As was the case when service providers rolled out the 3G networks some time ago, a greater number of cellular subscribers will be in a position to upgrade a personal or business device in 2014.

It will mark the tipping point when with any new device where there is a new contract or renewal present will be done so with an LTE capable device. As these contracts are typically three years in length, many of the legacy corporate or individual user contracts will be reaching their respective end.

Evidence of this being that Rogers & Bell added LTE in September 2011, with Telus following in February of 2012 (relevant for western Canada locations). Keeping this in mind, all new subscriber contracts of devices signed with these providers will be LTE capable.


A key challenge that is still facing the service providers is both the continued addition of LTE to macro serving cell sites and the current frequency being used to support 4G. The number of cell sites continues to grow but many rural areas aren’t yet supporting the upgrade to LTE.

With initial LTE frequencies being 2100 or 2600 mHz, the signal penetration will not be as strong inside buildings as would 850 or 1900mHz due to the wider wavelength cycles of higher frequency bands. The resulting effect may be the prevalence of LTE users to feel their service is poor receiving only two-three bars when within any indoor location.


In some cases where the devices struggle to pick up a strong enough LTE/4G signal, they will revert to 3G and its inherent performances versus the much quicker data rates with LTE. This may remain an issue even with robust macro coverage due to many of the current construction practices for new LEED certified buildings.

This service would potentially affect the use of apps, sending of photos, texts, or emails from within building premises where Wi-Fi isn’t available as a connectivity option. The impending results may be complaints from the user base.

As complexities of Wi-Fi solutions increase due to number of users, device capabilities, or security concerns, organizations and companies can also look to an alternative means of optimizing their own or their staff’s investment in portable devices.


The solution is a “Cellular Enhancement Solution”. A Cellular Enhancement Solution is comprised of various hardware that amplifies service providers’ signals via a direct carrier feed, or off-air from a macro serving site feeding a configuration of a donor antenna, amplifier(s), and interior antennas rebroadcasting a cleaner, higher powered signal within building confines.

These solutions range in size from products that cover residential or small offices to those that are capable of supporting high number of users in areas such as campuses or high-rise condo or office tower environments. These solutions aren’t new to the wireless industry as they have been deployed for many years by service providers in North America and abroad.

The key for businesses and organizations that are considering enhancing their user experience for either employee efficiency or customer service is educating themselves and understanding their applicable needs, what technologies are available, what is permitted for use on licensed networks, and where to go to find a solution provider.

Data based business solutions and applications are experiencing immense growth, and customer expectations for service in retail environments continues to evolve. We encourage companies of any size to understand how to optimize their investment in portable devices and benefit from having the best “in-building” coverage for any user type.

Why Retail Automotive Dealership Wi-Fi is a Must

Each and every day the wireless landscape is changing. Smartphones and tablets have changed the way we interface with the web in a number of different ways. However, all follow one common thread: the fact that “connectivity is becoming completely mandatory.” As a result of this, connectivity has moved beyond simply having an Internet connection in one’s home for access.


The popularity of smartphones continues to grow monthly as can be sited by the quarterly averages noted in the chart below noting 2013 statistics.

As this growth continues, so does the introduction and widespread use of “Apps” amongst the user base. Many of these are part of daily life no matter the time or place, as is allowable for the subscriber.

Whether it’s these software-driven tools, businesses becoming more open to the remote user, and/or the nature of “retail store hours” dictating that customers must service their vehicles during the hours of 9AM to 6PM, its relevance is that this time block is one that is especially important for connectivity for a potential visitor and/or customer to a retail automotive dealership.

As it has become more commonplace for “free Wi-Fi” to be available at a local coffee shop or restaurant, the expectations of the public user base also continue to grow. More and more locations that have public waiting or viewing areas that would typically not offer Wi-Fi connectivity in the past, now appear to have networks popping up on our smartphones.

Inevitably in the retail space, this will result in a happier, more pleasurable customer experience. This would especially be true where a customer is potentially spending hundreds, or even thousands of dollars on their existing vehicle in the service department, or on a vehicle purchase.
automotive dealership office with WIFI
For those that have the ability or don’t have a choice, some time, either significant or otherwise will be spent in the service department waiting area for their vehicle to be completed and/or to get a ride from the service shuttle to their home or business. This is where the connectivity has tremendous importance.

A large number of these folks are visiting during working hours and need robust connectivity to continue with their day in as normal of a fashion as possible. Enabling them to work while in the dealership space if they choose is an added customer service bonus. Not to mention the potential of the more youthful crowd that might be tweeting or posting Instagram pictures of a possible new vehicle purchase with their friends and/or family. Free marketing and referrals are some of the best opportunities to take advantage of.


As was perhaps viable 5-7 years ago, many companies deployed Wi-Fi solutions within their respective facilities without a suitable design tool. This could go as far as an IT Manager or Consulting Firm simply assessing a set of dealership floor plans and making the suggestions as to the required equipment and access point locations. Likely locations would include the customer traffic areas such as the showroom and service waiting areas.

In addition to this, the network in some cases might be integrated with the existing WLAN that supports the store staff as well. While these are all smart ideas in concept, the growing number of potential users, and various applications and uses (data transfer, VOIP, apps, barcode scanning, etc.) on these networks has changed substantially from what it was even 3-5 years ago. Bandwidth being the potential main concern. These challenges could be in addition to other factors such as construction materials and interior design.

Because of all these factors, simply installing a Wi-Fi router or access point on the ceiling where you think it should go is not sufficient. There are specific software tools that are used for measuring potential solution performance and expectations prior to installation. They provide significant data such as signal propagation, signal to noise measurements, and possible interference from outside sources.

Such tools are Ekahau or Air Magnet. Most if not all reputable wireless solution integrators should be using them. As an addition to the pre-integration capability, they also have a built-in “validation” tool that verifies the performance against the initial design. This is essentially an insurance policy for the dealer’s investment in the Wi-Fi hardware and infrastructure. And it can also enable some solutions (depending on scale and environment) to be guaranteed for coverage, limiting further expense in the future as a result of poor design.


It’s expected that many retail store owners in the automotive space or others for that matter may not consider it their responsibility or necessity to provide wireless service for their customer base. That being said, customer experience and service are paramount. And while it’s an unfortunate trend, it’s easy and common for potential customers to shop at the nearest out of town store for the same product if they feel they will get a better service experience, as long as the inconvenience is minimal.

Also, why have existing or potential customers leave for a Starbucks or Tim Hortons just to be connected wirelessly? Making the service experience one that keeps customers in the store as long as possible (for the right reasons of course) is sure to both increase retention as well as customer base. To do this, enabling them to work from your service lounge area, and/or send pictures of a potential new vehicle purchase option to their spouse or friends from their smartphone, can only provide a positive visit within your dealership operation.


In an increasing number of locations, Wi-Fi is expected to not only be offered, but people also want it for free.

The current generation of youth expects service anywhere because they have grown up with it. And many of these folks are now entering the workforce or will be in the near future. Not to mention, their penchant for technology use often rubs off on their parents, the ones that are potentially paying the bills. How public venues respond seems to depend on their need to provide a quality service experience in retail environments.

We at CORE Cabling are going to continue to keep our thumb on the pulse of changes in the wireless industry, and we’ll be making our discoveries available through our resources section and the rest of this website. We’re all in this learning process together. CORE Cabling strives to be your go-to source of information for all things wireless. We’re here to help!

The Importance of Free Wi-Fi for Retail Environments

Picture it: you’re staring at a QR code emblazoned on a product you’re interested in buying. You pull out your phone to scan the code, just like the sign says. The only problem is, there’s no Wi-Fi or cellular connection to be had. In fact, the entire box store you’re standing in is a complete dead zone.

If this has ever happened to you, you’re not alone. Several big name box stores are guilty of providing poor wireless coverage for their customers. How can it be that so many companies rely on the web to push their promotions when the physical location has such lousy coverage?

The emerging trend of free Wi-Fi is currently most commonly seen in coffee shops and restaurants, but there are strong arguments for offering this in retail stores. Free Wi-Fi in-store is a relatively new innovation, and may seem counterintuitive at first, but some retailers are offering this service in their stores. Some retailers may be concerned about the threat of mobile comparison (i.e. customers browsing for better deals elsewhere while they shop in your store) but this is a trend that needs to be embraced, as there are more pros than cons. The fact is, customers are going to use mobiles in store anyway, and this is an upward trend.


  • Offering free Wi-Fi in stores means that customers can use their mobile or tablet devices without any frustrating connection issues.
  • Free Wi-Fi can be used to improve the in-store experience for mobile users
  • in conjunction with in-store prompts like QR codes and barcodes, and with the retailer’s mobile app.
  • Retailers can harness the trend of customers using their mobiles to check prices, look for reviews, and find more detailed product information by turning it to their advantage by enhancing the level of information available to customers.
  • Free Wi-Fi could prompt customers to visit web pages with reviews of the products they are considering in store. This could be a powerful driver of sales.
  • Customers will appreciate free and good quality Wi-Fi that allows them to carry out their product research in store. Individual mobile internet connections vary in quality so users have to eat into their data allowances to use them in-store.
  • Wi-Fi in-store also provides a way to capture customer details and target them with offers. In fact, many customers would be willing to receive some offers in return for the convenience of accessing a decent Wi-Fi network.
  • An iPhone app allows users to compile shopping lists before heading to the store, where they can use their mobile to scan and pay for items in store. This is useful for the customer, but also provides the retailer with a wealth of information about the customer’s preferences and shopping habits.
  • Other new technologies such as the in-store ‘sat nav’ app gives you have the ability to target customers in real time, according to their location. To give an example, let’s say the customer is entering the dairy aisle. They bought a particular brand of butter last week, and there’s an offer on that this week. This app could notify them and point out that the product is a mere five yards away from where they’re standing or recommend another option. This will be the future of retail, for those who opt in.

In summary, free Wi-Fi can be used to enhance the in-store experience for consumers, as well as provide retailers with some precision tools to target the mobile customer. Get in touch with us to find out how your store can be “CORE tested” to ensure appropriate wireless coverage. Customers already have the smartphone and tablet technology in their bags and pockets that makes this kind of thing possible, it’s just a question of adapting to it and making it easier for them to use their mobiles in-store by providing Wi-Fi.

Wireless Network Installation in Toronto

Businesses and residences are actively hunting for the right coverage solutions. Smart phones and tablets have changed the way we interface with the web; connectivity has become a necessity.


There are many companies that have deployed Wi-Fi solutions within their respective facilities, without a suitable design tool such as Ekahau or Air Magnet. These tools have built in software that enables businesses develop a predictive dessign that lets us see the expected coverage in a particular environment.

Factors such as construction materials, warehouse inventory, and the number of users on the network can affect wireless network performance. Some other factors include:

  • Capacity on network greater than the number of suitable access points in proper placement within facilities.
  • Introduction of increased network-supported devices continues to grow, with VOIP and barcode scanning solution deployments, all of which require robust Wi-Fi to function optimally.
  • Many installations conducted without the proper tools or experience, where staff is “guessing” where access points should be located, without any prior assessment.

Because of all these factors, simply sticking a Wi-Fi router or access point on the ceiling where you think it should go is not sufficient.

CORE Wireless strives to be your go-to source of information for all things wireless. We are here to help!

Wireless Troubleshooting

“Have you tried turning it off and on again?” If you are experiencing problems with your Internet connection or Wi-Fi, such as a flaky connection or even no access to the Internet at all, you’ll likely be asked this if you call technical support. It’s true, you may just need a reboot (if you’re lucky). Otherwise, some troubleshooting could fix things. Here we provide some tips for troubleshooting your Internet connection problems.

First and foremost, it may sound redundant but try rebooting your router. Ridiculous as it may sound, the lowly reboot is the solution to many problems. So whether websites are failing to load, everything network-related seems slow, connections are dropping, or your wireless is flaking out, many routers seem to need the occasional reboot to continue working at maximum capacity. The process is simple, unplug the router’s power cable, wait a few seconds and then plug it back in.

Next, check that all cables are plugged in properly and securely.

If you are still experiencing problems, then overheating could be the culprit. Routers oftentimes fall prey to overheating which can damage them or make them unstable. If a router feels very hot, it’s not getting enough airflow meaning that the vents are blocked or it is sitting in a very hot location. Try moving it to a better location.

Another reason to move your router is if you are experiencing Wi-Fi signal issues. Ensure nothing is blocking the wireless signal like a large metal filing cabinet or other devices such as microwaves which could interfere. As for the antenna, ensure it’s pointing vertically versus horizontally.

If your office is in a building that has several wireless routers in the vicinity, there is likely interference happening. You need to determine the best wireless channel for your area and change the router accordingly to a less congested channel.

Another option is to try resetting the router to its factory default settings. It’s possible that someone may have mistakenly changed certain settings. Bear in mind this step does require that you also reconfigure your router again as well, meaning resetting your name and password.

If none of these steps make a difference then it’s likely you have a broken router or a cable is damaged. In other words, you may have to invest in a new router. Note that flashing green lights on the router are normal but a blinking orange light indicates a problem. If you are experiencing ongoing problems that are causing frustration in the workplace, it’s time to call CORE. We can tell you whether the problem is on your end or due to an external issue and we’ll ensure you won’t experience the problem in the future.

Common Wireless Network Issues

In a business environment, your Wi-Fi is a crucial part of your IT infrastructure. Improper planning and incorrect setup of your system can create performance and security problems. Without proper Wi-Fi coverage, you and your employees are essentially cut off from the rest of the world.

CORE can help you establish the right kind of network from the start, and quickly resolve issues when they arise. Here are just a few of the issues CORE can help you resolve:

  • Connectivity issues. It can be maddening when you find that you can’t connect to your wireless network. Worse still, the causes of connectivity issues can be complicated and come from deep within your IT infrastructure. With CORE, you can get professional help to diagnose and correct the problem. That gets you back online faster, and with a lot less stress.
  • Security issues. When you transmit sensitive information over wireless networks, it automatically becomes more vulnerable. Wi-Fi makes things more convenient, but it brings with it important security concerns. Working with a professional can help you safeguard your network from a whole range of potential security threats.
  • Network Expansion issues. Wi-Fi networks are more sensitive than you may realize. Sometimes the addition of one extra user can bog down an entire network. Using managed wireless solutions, you can efficiently grow the size of your wireless network when you hire new employees or take on new projects.
  • Access Point issues. One access point or router may not be enough for your whole company. CORE can help you calculate exactly how many access points you need for everyone to get optimum performance.

You could save a lot of money, and a lot of unnecessary hassle by using CORE. Your expertise is in your business field, not with wireless networks, so why not leave it up to someone who knows exactly what they are doing? Contact CORE and request a visit from one of our team for a site survey. We’ll ensure you get a proper design and implementation process tailored for your office needs.

Is my Wireless Router Obsolete?

Is your office experiencing bottlenecks in its wireless network? Are you paying through the nose for internet speeds you never actually achieve? These problems and others could simply come down to an outdated wireless router. So, is it time to buy a new wireless router? Here we’ll discuss router basics, reasons to upgrade your current router and how CORE can assist your business to overcome these obstacles, improve its overall functioning and get its money’s worth.


A standard modem only allows you to connect one computer to the internet at a time. A router allows multiple users to connect to one or more computers at a time. It’s called a router for the simple reason that signals are being routed back and forth. Devices can be connected to the router either with a wire or without wires (otherwise known as Ethernet cables). Oftentimes, depending on


Below are some of the many benefits you’ll gain from an upgrade:

  • Faster speeds: Newer routers can handle streaming multiple devices speedily.
  • Broader distance: Access the Internet anywhere in your office (no more dead zones).
  • Support for more wireless devices: Connect dozens of devices without fear of a noticeable slowdown.
  • Better security: Newer routers offer more secure ways to safeguard your network and information.
  • Get what you’re paying for.


To determine whether your business needs a new wireless router, a CORE specialist will take some metrics of your current office network. This won’t take long to do, and the payoff is to ensure that the network is getting the internet speeds that you are paying for as well as minimizing buffering, lag, and other atrocities.

If you suspect that you may require a new and improved router to increase productivity and decrease workplace frustration, contact an expert at CORE to get the issue resolved once and for all. We can recommend the best solution for your current needs, finances and situation. If you aren’t getting the speed you are paying for when connected directly to your wireless router, then CORE can help make sure you do.

How Does Wireless Technology Work?

Wireless Networks are affected by five major issues.

Reflection is the change of direction of a RF wave as it bounces off a medium.


Absorption is the lessening of the signal strength as it passes through a medium.


Refraction is the change in direction of a RF wave as it passes through a medium.


Diffraction is the bending of RF waves around an object.


Scattering is when the RF wave hits a jagged edge and scatters into multiple waves.



Multi-path is when the generated RF wave is disrupted by Reflection, Absorption, Refraction, Diffraction and Scattering which causes the same RF wave to arrive at the Device at different times. This causes severe damage to the received signal and can bring a 802.11 A/B/G network to a crawl.


Experiencing any of these issues?

Contact Core Cabling today to get a Wireless Site Survey for your business!

5 Reasons Signal Interference may be causing your Wireless Network Connectivity Problems


When you are designing or setting up a wireless network it’s important to be proactive in determining how the Wi-Fi signal strength might be influenced by different materials.

Without taking this into consideration, it’s possible that you could experience a whole barge of wireless connectivity problems due to Wi-Fi interference.

Whether you are running a business, a public space or simply your own home, a troublesome wireless network is guaranteed to be the causes of more than a few headaches.

When we set up a wireless network, we conduct a wireless survey to find any spots that may cause trouble due to one or more of these five major issues:


Reflection is when an RF wave changes direction as it bounces off a medium. Certain surfaces, such as metal, can influence signals just like they would influence a beam of light. If there is a large amount of reflection, it is possible for signal strength to become weak or to suffer from interference.



Absorption is when the signal strength loses power as it passes through a medium. All materials will absorb the signal at different rates. Wood is an example of a material that can heavily absorb a signal, which can lead to problems.


Refraction is when an RF wave bends or changes direction as it passes through a medium. We can recognize this the same way we recognize how light seems to bend when it passes through a glass of water, for example. If a system is precisely setup without taking into account refraction then there can be problems once the signal is distorted.


Diffraction is when RF waves bend around an object. This can be caused by either natural landscape features, such as hills or around man-made objects, such as a building. As seen in the image below, diffraction can also cause a “shadow” where RF waves are blocked from a zone behind an object. If a network specialist doesn’t take this into consideration, it can be the primary cause of a poorly performing wireless network.


Scattering is when an RF wave encounters an object and scatters into multiple waves. Some examples of common objects that cause scattering include dust, smog, humidity and chain link fences. If a signal has been scattered then the integrity and strength of the signal will suffer tremendously.

Scattering is more unpredictable than the other issues mentioned in this post, but with proper planning, a solution can at least be addressed in the setup.


It is possible for more than one of the issues mentioned above to be affecting an RF wave. For example, glass is a material that will both refract and absorb some of the power of a signal.

A wireless network specialist will be able to take the entire situation into account in order to identify the chief problems behind a poor signal.


Multi-path is when the generated RF wave is disrupted by Reflection, Absorption, Refraction, Diffraction and Scattering which causes the same RF wave to arrive at the Device at different times.

This causes severe damage to the received signal and can bring an 802.11 A/B/G network to a crawl.



If you are dealing with a slow or inconsistent wireless network then any of the five major issues mentioned above may be to blame.

The best step you can take is to contact a wireless network specialist like CORE Cabling today to schedule a wireless site survey. It’s quick, easy and can help get rid of your wireless network connection problems and return to the speed you expect!

What is MIMO?

What is all the buzz about MIMO?

MIMO stands for multiple input multiple output.

With 802.11N all the shortcomings of 802.11 A/B/G which used SISO (Single Input Signal Output) are now used in the favour of the network.

Reflection, Absorption, Refraction, Diffraction and Scattering are used by MIMO to serve as multiple streams of DATA to be transferred between devices. 802.11N is a game changer to the deployment of wireless networks in environments such as manufacturing, warehouse and other challenging environments where A/B/G deployments struggled with multi-path caused by Reflection, Absorption, Refraction, Diffraction. LTE also takes advantages of MIMO.

Wireless Site Survey for Business

Critical business activities depend on the integrity of the performance and coverage of your wireless infrastructure, so you need to be sure you’ve got it covered. Because every business is different, with its own set of challenges and building characteristics, you can’t just throw up some Access Points and expect your wireless coverage to be flawless.

An active RF Site Survey (or Wireless Site Survey) can determine exactly how your wireless plan should be laid out.


A wireless site survey is the process of planning and designing a wireless network to provide a wireless solution that will deliver the required wireless coverage, data rates, network capacity, roaming capability and Quality of Service (QoS).

A successful wireless system deployment will depend on several factors, including where your building is, what your connection requirements are, how many people will need access to the network, how close you are to other businesses with their own wireless networks, and so on.


During CORE’s wireless site surveys, we offer both pre and post site surveys. Here is a breakdown of why both these stages are necessary.

Pre-Site Wireless Site Survey

A Pre-Site Survey will help us determine whether there are any issues with your space before any work can be done on your site.

A pre-site survey consists of:

  • Use of software tools (Ekahau or Air Magnet) to develop detailed heatmaps of the space
  • Measurement of signal strength characteristics to determine any challenges
  • Assessment of potential conflicts with nearby signals
  • A detailed report as to the existing Signal to Noise Ratio for the space
  • A detailed report that specifies the most effective placement of Access Points


Post-Site Wireless Site Survey

A Post-Site Survey ensures that the system is operating to its peak performance, and all coverage areas have sufficient Signal Strength as per the design. CORE’s post-site survey is a quality assurance procedure that allows us to completely confirm that your wireless installation was completed up to our quality standards.

A post-site survey consists of:

  • Verification of our recommendations and our solution implementation
  • An assessment of recommended solutions and results from the predictive analysis
  • Another heatmap assessment (using Ekahau software) to ensure even coverage and reliability across the entire site



CORE can also conduct predictive wireless site surveys that simulate your network environment from a drawing or CAD software file. By gathering the pertinent details ahead of time, we can conduct an efficient predictive coverage model that will indicate the location and the number of APs required for your needs. Predictive wireless surveys can be handy when an in-person active site survey is not an option.


Businesses with complex, radio frequency-rich multi-story, multi-building, multi-campus environments such as warehouses, hospitals, industrial production facilities, retail and office complexes, freight-handling facilities and distribution centers offer particular challenges to the uninterrupted wireless flow of critical data. These types of facilities benefit from having wireless site surveys conducted, to ensure there will be even, consistent coverage across the entire site that will meet your required demand.

A CORE wireless site survey is a great way to gather critical information to avoid any shortcomings and ensure the installation of a system that will work for your needs today and well into the future. Contact CORE today to schedule a site survey and see how we can set you up with the ideal wireless network for your business.


Image provided by CORE partner Ekahau 

Wireless Frequently Asked Questions

As part of CORE Cabling’s emergence in the wireless installation market, we have compiled a list of questions we receive on a regular basis regarding wireless. If you have any questions you’d like to ask, let us know via email, or please post them on our LinkedIn page and we’ll get back to you as soon as possible!


The Wi-Fi Alliance is a non-profit organization responsible for the testing and certification of IEEE 802.11  devices for Interoperability between them. Basically, when a device is certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance, everyone is speaking the same language and using the same standards for communicating.

WHAT IS IEEE 802.11?

The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) develops and maintains the standards under the banner known as 802.11. The most widely known standards are 802.11B, 802.11G, 802.11A and 802.11N.

WHAT ARE 802.11 A,B,G,N?

  • 802.11A operates in the 5Ghz band and supports an aggregate speed up to 54 Mbs (Mega Bytes per Second)
  • 802.11B operates in the 2.4Ghz band and supports speeds up to11 Mbs
  • 802.11G operates in the 2.4Ghz band and supports speeds up to 54 Mbs
  • 802.11N operates in the 2.4 and 5 Ghz band and supports speeds up to 150 Mbs


Multi-path is when the generated RF wave is disrupted by Reflection, Absorption, Refraction, Diffraction and Scattering which causes the same RF wave to arrive at the Device at different times. This causes severe damage to the received signal and can bring  a 802.11 A/B/G network to a crawl.

10 Things to Consider When Planning your Wireless Network

Choose a partner that is capable of the work you want done.

There are many service providers out there that advertise wireless solutions. Make sure they have the capabilities to perform the tasks at hand. Wireless communications are not as easy as hanging access points around your facility. You might get it working, but possibly not the way you want it to work. There are many things to consider when designing your network. Make sure your wireless installation company has the certifications to work with the vendor being recommended. And make sure they have references for similar installations. Everyone says they can do wireless, but not everyone can do it well.

Use the right technology.

There are many vendors of wireless products in the marketplace, and while they all have their own features, some are inherently better in certain environments than others. From a technology point of view, make sure you are selecting features that you really need. 2.4 ghz, or 5 ghz, or dual radios that can propagate in both frequencies is a first choice that needs to be made. Designing your network for 2.4 ghz may or may not be necessary based on the types of devices and applications being used over your network. 2.4 ghz can introduce unnecessary interference into your environment if not planned accordingly, or not needed at all. Controller based, controller less, or cloud based controllers is another major choice from a technology standpoint. All offer different advantages, and have a fit for different applications and environments. Ask Core Cabling what best wireless technology is best for you.

Plan for Capacity.

Include capacity or total number of devices and application performance into your network plan. Coverage is important, but often capacity is just as important in planning for your wireless network. Understanding the number of users and total number of devices that will be connecting to your network is an important step in this process. This can also vary from everyday use, to spikes that may occur seasonally, or during events, depending on your environment. Designing a solution that can handle the number of simultaneous connections per access point, can, and should be paramount in your selection process.

Plan for planning.

Coverage, capacity, users, devices, applications, interference, power requirements, and security, are all considerations that need to be input into your design model. Sound difficult? It doesn’t have to be. Not long ago, wireless network design involved a floor plan, and plotting locations for access points with a protractor. This process was cumbersome, and prone to errors in channel and power planning that caused unnecessary interference and holes in your network. The good news is that access points no long require manual power and channel settings. Wireless planning has also become much more simple, thanks to great software options. The downside however, is that wireless devices and the world of Wi-Fi continue to get more complex than ever. Make sure to choose a partner that has the tools needed for the job at hand. Taking shortcuts during planning will not help you down the road when you have a network that will not provide the performance you, your staff, and your customers are expecting.


Don’t forget about security. Include network access control as part of the design process. It is essential to have a secure method for registering devices that you don’t own. This is well worth the effort. Protecting your network from wireless users is just as important as protecting your wireless users from each other. Unfortunately there are those out there that would seek to benefit from your hard work and your investment. From sealing your bandwidth, hijacking your guests, and stealing personal information, protecting you and your guests should always be a priority. You will be happy you made this consideration in the long run.

Remember maintenance.

Keep your firmware or network adapter driver for your wireless network devices updated. Manufacturers provide firmware and driver updates on a regular basis. On some occasions, these updates will increase performance. Typically you can access updates through the manufacturer’s website. In a similar fashion, sometimes network adapter vendors provide updates to their software, which can improve reliability and performance. Most vendors offer annual support options. These are an important part of keeping your network up to date. Likewise many solution providers offer some type of maintenance offering that can coincide with your manufacturer support and firmware upgrades. This is your partners chance to perform a health check on your network, make improvements as necessary, and head off any potential problems before they arise. Whether it is a new wireless network, or your existing network, Core Cabling can help with your maintenance needs. All saving you time and or money in the long run.

Survey, survey, and survey.

Remember the point above about planning for planning? The survey is the most important part of this step. There are many types of surveys, including onsite passive and active surveys. The most important ones to keep in mind as part of your design are the predictive and the post validation surveys. The predictive model survey involved importing your buildings drawings into the survey software. Adding considerations like materials, walls, floors, thicknesses, windows and doors, shelving, elevators and stairwells. Anything that can and does add interference or attenuation into your environment is input here. This is important in understanding how the wireless devices will interact in your environment, and necessary for planning a solution that will do what you want it to do. Once the installation is complete, the last step is the post validation survey. This is a process involving physically walking through your facility and taking a reading of your wireless network, and comparing it to the predictive model. The purpose of this is 2 fold. 1) To see firsthand how your network is performing and making any necessary changes for improvement. And 2) To see firsthand that your network is performing as planned and that you are getting what you paid for. Without it you really are just shooting in the dark. Can you get a photo with better resolution?

Don’t just add on.

Historically, when a wireless network has a dead zone, it was easy to just put up another access point and not worry about the fall out. Today, we know that this is not the best course of action. There is a large difference between our residential home wireless router and a corporate grade wireless access point. The corporate grades are smarter, and more powerful. And thankfully with the help of the controller based solution, we have more tools at our disposal to help mitigate interference and performance issues. Often adding unnecessary access points to an ill performing network will make the problem worse by adding to the interference. This is especially true in environments where 2.4 ghz is being utilized. Engaging Core Cabling, or your trusted wireless partner, is the best course of action to help with situations like this.

Include Redundancy and Disaster Recovery.

While we know these are often pain points for any business owner, we also know that you have probably taken steps to integrate redundancy and disaster recovery into your current network design. Why shouldn’t this be the same for your wireless network? Many solutions on the market today have self-healing architecture. This means that in the event of an access point failing, the controller will see it, and tell the surrounding access points to increase or decrease power accordingly to help compensate for the failure until it can be replaced or repaired. Also, a proper design, that offers a coverage model based on redundancy is paramount. This means that each location in your facility can be covered by at least 2 access points. Disaster recovery is the second part of this. Having a backup of your controller and access point configuration is equally important in ensuring that your network is back online quickly following a failure or disasters. Together these two elements can prove to be invaluable in saving you time and money throughout the lifespan of your wireless network.

Standardization and growth.

Standardization of the hardware and software used in a wireless network is important for ensuring the network runs smoothly. It also reduces costs associated with maintenance, updates and repairs. Most business owners understand the benefits of having their employees using the same notebooks, with the same word processing and email programs for example. Having your wireless network designed with industry standard protocols in mind, likewise, is a necessary investment for ensuring not only the longevity of the solution, but the capacity for growth and expansion. While it may not always be possible to anticipate how large an organization may be in 5 years, some allowances for future growth must be built into the network design. For example, designing a wireless network with 5 access points, connected to a controller has the capability of only handling 5 access points, will definitely lead to frustration when you need to buy a new controller to add the 6th access point for your newly renovated area in your facility. Core will make sure we are helping to future proof you wireless network design. Make sure that your partner is keeping this in mind when designing your network.

802.11AC Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

Q. What is 802.11ac?

A. 802.11ac is a wireless LAN technology that offers a significant performance increase over its predecessor, 802.11n. The 802.11ac offers theoretical speeds up to 6.9 Gbps in the 5-GHz band, or 11.5 times those of 802.11n.


Q. What is the difference between 802.11ac Wave 1 and Wave 2?

A. Wave 1 products have been in use in the market for about 2.5 years. Wave 2 builds upon Wave 1 with some enhancements.

  1. Supports speeds to 2.34 Gbps in the 5 GHz band (up from 1.3 Gbps).
  2. Offers the option of using a fourth spatial stream for greater performance
  3. Supports multiuser multiple input, multiple output (MU-MIMO)
  4. Offers the option of using 160-MHz-wide channels for greater performance


Q. Why are there two 802.11ac “waves”?

A. The 802.11ac IEEE standard is being introduced to the market in a series of “waves” (releases) of new products and technology. The reason is that the capabilities in 802.11ac are numerous, and delivering them in waves allows the industry to take advantage of many without having to wait for all capabilities to be available.


Q. When can we anticipate 802.11ac Wave 2 products being available on the market?

A. Many industry analysts expect that the initial consumer-focused products providing Wave 2 support will become available by the end of 2016. Enterprise Wave 2 clients and infrastructure products will follow three to six months later. This is very similar to how the 802.11ac Wave 1 products were introduced to the market.


Q. Are Wave 1 hardware and Wave 2 hardware compatible with each other?

A. The short answer is no. 802.11ac Wave 1 required new hardware in both access points and client devices to deliver channel widths up to 80 MHz (256-QAM), and up to three spatial streams. The result was a maximum data rate of 1.3 Gbps, or about three times the top-end 802.11n. Similarly, Wave 2, requires new hardware in both access points and client devices to support the additional 802.11ac capabilities such as MU-MIMO, channel widths up to 160 MHz, and the potential for a fourth spatial stream.


Q. Will 802.11ac Wave 2 continue to support 802.11ac Wave 1 and other 5-GHz protocols?

A. Yes, 802.11ac Wave 2 access points will interoperate with 802.11ac Wave 1, 802.11n, and 802.11a client devices.


Q. What is MU-MIMO, and how will it help my network?

A. MU-MIMO stands for multiuser multiple input, multiple output, and is a brand new feature introduced with 802.11ac Wave 2. MU-MIMO support is required on both the access point and client device to work. It operates in the downstream direction, access point to client, and allows an access point to transmit to multiple client devices simultaneously. This differs from Wave 1, and previous single-user (SU)-MIMO, in which an access point transmits to a single client device at a time.


Q. Will clients require new hardware to take advantage of Wave 2 802.11ac?

A. Both access points and clients will require new hardware to take advantage of Wave 2 802.11ac. Going from 80 MHz to 160 MHz, and from SU-MIMO to MU-MIMO, are significant technical challenges. Wave 2 access points will be backward compatible with older clients from an interoperability standpoint. But the new enhancements will function only when access points and clients both support the new hardware.


Q. How will 802.11ac Wave 2 access points handle throughput greater than 1 Gbps?

A. The potential throughput of a wireless client is dependent upon a number of factors, including number of spatial streams supported, distance from the access point, quality of signal maintained between the client and access point, potential sources of interference and signal obstruction, and the quality of the client device and access point.


Q. What cable category will I need to connect an 802.11ac Wave 2 access point?

A. Customers will have a wide variety of cabling choices when connecting to Multigigabit Ethernet ports. Multigigabit Ethernet will provide support for up to 5 Gbps over Category 5e cabling and will still provide full PoE support – which is five times the throughput of existing Category 5e infrastructure. Multigigabit Ethernet will provide support up to 10 Gbps over Category 6a cabling, and will still provide full PoE Support.

Cable Type FE 1G 2.5G 5G 10G
Cat5e Yes Yes Yes Yes 100m
Cat6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 55m
Cat6a Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 100m


Q. Do I need to run 2 cables to each access point?

A. Bear in mind that industry claims of throughput capabilities exceeding 1 Gbps are correct from a theoretical standpoint. However, real-world client mixes will mean that backhaul will likely never reach 1 Gbps. We should consider greater than 1 Gbps backhaul with Wave 2 in very specific locations that have a low-density of high-end devices with very demanding bandwidth needs. That being said, the simple answer is this. While you may not require dual gigabit cabling to each access point, many organizations are future proofing their new designs by installing the additional cable to each access point regardless. Long term, there are definite needs for multigigabit cabling at the access point layer. Moreover, a single cable works against industry standards of allowing for not only growth, and new technology, but even at its base level, it does not allow for headroom for spikes in traffic and related surges of data. The generally accepted theory is that if we are spending money on cable infrastructure that we hope to last for up to 10 years or longer, it is desirable to maximize the investment in UTP and associated pathways.

What is Voice and Data Cabling?

The backbone of your business.  CORE Cabling Inc. installs certified Category 3, Category 5e, Category 6 & 6A twisted pair copper cabling.  We can assist in the design, implementation and management of your structured cabling network.

Voice and data information is transported mostly along Copper Cables.  The cables are made up of individual wires that are grouped together in pairs, usually in pairs of four.  These cables are classified into separate Categories.

Typically Category 3 cable is used for the transportation of voice signal(s).

Want some more information on pricing and services? Fill out our Request a Quote form and a member of our staff will contact you shortly to discuss the services you require.

Redundant Cable Removal

Whether you’re conducting renovations at your office or are overseeing a new site development, you need to remove old and abandoned cabling in a safe, environmentally friendly manner while ensuring any live cable or equipment is not interrupted or disturbed.

For commercial property managers, as the businesses leasing your offices, suites, and retail locations change, you need to ensure the property is clean and adequately prepared to meet the demands of your incoming customers.

The CORE Cabling team is Toronto’s and the Greater Toronto Area’s cost-effective cable installation and removal experts. As general cabling, network cabling, and server room demands change, dismantling, removing, containing and disposing of redundant wiring and cabling safely is important and delicate work.

Our team specializes in providing redundant cable removal services in a number of scenarios including:

  • Underfloor data centre cable decommissions
  • Overhead cable trays replacement
  • Relocations of network cabling rooms or data centres
  • Removing cabinets and general cabling containment

End-to-End Cabling Solutions

Once the install was complete and testing commenced, it was found that the entire cable install failed the required tests according to industry standard.

Subsequently, this so called “cheap” install, became very costly to the integrator as all of the cable had to be removed because of a defect.

When selecting a manufacturer for your installation, it is critical to ensure that the cable and connectivity products come with an extensive end-to-end warranty; 20 years should be the minimum.

An end-to-end cabling solution protects your investment from the patch cord that connects your PC at the workstation all the way back to the patch cord that connects to your network switch.

CORE Cabling Inc. works with industry leading manufacturers to provide your company with a fully warranted end-to-end structured cabling solution.  Once your install is complete and tested with state of the art test equipment, we submit all test results to the manufacturer for review. Their on-staff engineers review our test results and issue a certificate to you, the end user, which entitles you to a full warranty on their products for at least 20 years.

Want more some information on pricing and services? Fill out our Request a Quote form and a member of our staff will contact you shortly to discuss the services you require.

Is Category 5e Cabling Obsolete?

It could be time to upgrade your office’s cabling. After an important decision by the ISO/IEC cabling standards body Category 5e cabling will be considered obsolete for new installations.

With the demand for a variety of cabling types and the trends in technology, including bandwidth requirements the ISO/IEC has upgraded the minimum recommendation for horizontal cabling in offices.


Office buildings across the globe use Category 5e cabling, which will now become obsolete for future installations. Check out the updated cabling recommendations and requirements below.

  • For offices (11801-2) the minimum recommendation for horizontal cabling will be raised from Class D to Class E. The requirement is set to be published by the ISO/IEC in 2017. This will include a recommendation to customers to dispense Class Ea to support applications with alien cross talk.
  • Industrial (11801-3) buildings and single tenant homes (11801-4) will continue to use Class D cabling. Although updated requirements will not be far behind.
  • The minimum requirement for data centres (11801-5) and distributed services (11801-6) continues to be Class Ea cabling.

The ISO/IEC 11801 was the first international standard for cabling in commercial buildings and they were integral to the explosive growth and mass integration of Ethernet and IP communication around the world. Cabling standards continue to rise as the average number of devices per employee is increasing and offices are forced to upgrade pathways to accommodate wireless access points (WAPS).

The 11801 standard now includes a variety of cabling classes to help support up to 10 gigabits per second.  Many industry experts predict a rapid adoption of speeds beyond 1GB/s for the average office user due to video conferencing, high definition imaging, 3D printing and other support applications.

The rise of smartphone and tablets has led to the increased need to upgrade LAN infrastructure. With media-rich user expectations upgrades to IEEE 802.11ac have accelerated. With speeds of up to 7 Gb/s the new infrastructure will include backhaul requirements exceeding 1 Gb/s by Class D and Class E cabling.

This new LAN infrastructure has acted as a catalyst for new IEEE specifications for 2.5BASE-T. These upgrades will address installed Class D cabling and 5GBASE-T will address Class E cabling. It is important to note that transmission requirements of 2.5 and 5GBASE-T exceed both Class D and E specifications.

This could mean alien crosstalk qualification of Class D and Class E installed cabling could become a costly and lengthy process but would be needed to verify support of 2.5 and 5GBASE-T (qualifications are based on 10GBASE-T). With this development the market for 2.5 and 5GBASE-T will increase and will cause a downward price pressure and improve efficiency for the system.


This change will simplify the question we are always asked: “What is your recommendation on whether we should install Category 5e or Category 6?” Now, offices will not have a choice.

Let’s keep in mind that all new Category 6 cables and components are backwards compatible with Category 5e.

Category 6 cable provides increased bandwidth, offering the ability to perform at speeds of 10 gigabit, with distance limitations. This will mean increased costs (over Category 5e) for businesses that are installing new or upgrading their existing structured cabling systems, however the price difference between Category 5e and 6 is getting smaller every year. Plus, the benefits of future-proofing your network cabling system now, will mean lower costs in the future.

After 20 years as the international standard Class D has become obsolete and will be replaced by Class Ea. Cabling recommendations and requirements will continue to evolve. Core Cabling will be there to keep you up to date with the changes. If you have any questions about the cabling upgrade or you are interested in finding out more about upgrading your building contact us today, or request a quote.

Armoured Fiber Patch Cable​

Without protection, rodents, construction work, the weight of multiple cables and other factors can all cause damage, which can prevent your network from functioning.

Armoured fiber patch cable retains all the features of standard fiber cable but is much stronger due to its extra layers of ‘armour’. Due to its ruggedness and superior crush resistance, it’s the ideal solution for harsh installation conditions that require exceptional durability.


Installing armoured fiber patch cable has several benefits, including:

  • Virtually unbreakable: immune to twisting, kinking and crushing
  • Safe & secure: can withstand a reasonable amount of weight
  • Rodent & weather resistant
  • Cost effective: just slightly more than standard fiber cable
  • Flexible and lightweight: easy to work with and to carry
  • Easy to install: unique design greatly reduces installation difficulties
  • Easy to maintain: risk of downtime is lessened when cable damage occurs
  • Customizable: custom cable lengths are optional


Traditional fiber cable is unprotected whereas armoured fiber patch cable boasts a stainless steel tube, reinforced with Kevlar and an additional steel braided layer with an outer jacket. This makes it better for applications where patching and re-patching are done on a consistent basis. It can withstand more weight and is available in Singlemode or Multimode 10GIG 50 micron as well as 62.5 with most connector configurations.

At CORE, we supply a range of armoured fiber patch cable options, including both Singlemode and Multimode. If you require extra protection and reliability for your current or upcoming network installation project, contact an expert at CORE to discuss your options, or request a quote.

What is IP Video?

Because of the nature of IP video, any network cabling solution needs to be optimized to distribute lossless (or as seamless as possible) transfer of data from one point to another, or from one point to several points.

IP video has been gaining in popularity over the last few years because of its potential for massive distribution over standard data networks. Once the data network infrastructure is in place, IP video can become a viable means for your company to create internal video solutions or reach out to customers and expand your client base.

The key is having the video network IP data cabling plan taken care of. That’s where we come in. CORE Cabling Inc. has planned out and installed several successful IP video applications all over Toronto and the GTA. Our main goal is to keep the data and networking side of things as simple as possible so all you have to worry about is the front end.

Our tried and true method of network cable installation and integration ensures that once you are up and running, the system will offer seamless data transfer and minimal traffic restrictions. We are your IP video infrastructure experts!

Please contact us to get more information.

Want some more information on pricing and services? Fill out our Request a Quote form and a member of our staff will contact you shortly to discuss the services you require.

What Are Network Cabinets?

Network racks and cabinets are almost as important as the network cabling itself.  Your installation is not complete without these essential components.  Selecting the proper sizes, configuration and quantity are critical to your networks success.  CORE Cabling Inc. can help you design and plan your network equipment rack and cabinet needs for today and the future.

Want some more information on pricing and services? Fill out our Request a Quote form and a member of our staff will contact you shortly to discuss the services you require.

What is Conduit Installation?

Essentially conduit protects your cable(s).  Conduit adds a layer of security to your network installation.  A properly installed conduit system will prevent critical cables from being damaged by a number of different sources.  Conduit comes in a very wide variety of sizes and should be sized properly to accommodate growth.

Want some more information on pricing and services? Fill out our Request a Quote form and a member of our staff will contact you shortly to discuss the services you require.

What is Copper Cable?

In the ancient world, the majority of the copper mined in the Roman Empire came from Cyprus and was called Cyprium or later Cuprum, hence the modern name, copper. Today, it is one of the best electrical conductors of all the metals, and its abundance has helped it become the material that tied the world together in telecommunications. Here we’ll discuss the advantages for choosing copper cabling for your network, as well as the differences between copper and fibre cabling.


  1. COPPER IS THE BEST CONDUCTOR = EFFICIENT. Copper has the highest electrical conductivity rating of all non-precious metals (100%). Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material transports an electric charge. Aluminum for example only has 61% of the conductivity of copper.
  2. COPPER IS FLEXIBLE. The inherent strength, hardness, and flexibility of copper building wire make it very easy to work with. Even though it has some flexibility, it doesn’t lose any toughness. It is not brittle when you bend it, so it will not crack or break.
  3. SAFETY. It really takes a lot to melt a copper wire (at least 1981.4ºF /1083.0ºC). In terms of safety, copper is going to be one of your best options. If an overload or surge comes through the wire, it is not likely to melt or burn. This means that your odds of a fire starting as a result of a power problem are going to be greatly decreased.
  4. COPPER STAYS PUT. When materials other than copper are used to wire things, they can sometimes loosen where they are connected and come unattached. This can lead to some seriously dangerous conditions when it comes to electrical wiring. With category cable connections, compromised cabling can lead to drops in connection and data corruption. Not good.
  5. COMPATIBILITY. Not having copper wiring can cause incompatibility problems in the future. For example, most appliance and electrical equipment manufacturers specify that copper wire is in all of their products.
  6. COST EFFECTIVE. Generally, copper wire is less expensive to install than fibre.

It is true that fibre cable prices have come down, however the technology surrounding fibre installations is still more expensive than copper. Fibre is more often used as a backbone infrastructure as copper has length and bandwidth limitations. For data networks, the 300ft rule for copper is almost always applied. Fibre on the other hand can be utilized in any building or campus environment without exceeding length limitations. The number one thing to consider when using fibre as a transport medium is equipment. Will your equipment handle and accept fibre optic cable? There are many solutions to consider, CORE can point you in the right direction.

To fully maximize your cabling infrastructure and prepare for the media-rich applications of the future, speak to a CORE Cabling specialist today. We’ll point you in the right direction.

Want some more information on pricing and services? Fill out our Request a Quote form and a member of our staff will contact you shortly to discuss the services you require.

What is Fibre Optic Cabling?

Since the first commercial installation of a fibre-optic system in 1977, the applications of optical fibre communications have increased rapidly. Here we’ll discuss the basics behind fibre optic cable, its benefits over copper cable and the most common types of fibre optic cable.


The fibre-optic system is similar to the copper wire system that fibre-optics is replacing, but the difference is that fibre-optics use light pulses to transmit information down fibre lines instead of using electronic pulses to transmit information down copper lines.

The components in a fibre-optic chain

If we look at the components in a fibre-optic chain, it will give us a better understanding of how the system works in conjunction with wire-based systems;

At one end of the system is a transmitter, which is the place of origin for information coming on to fibre-optic lines. The transmitter accepts coded electronic pulse information coming from copper wire. It then processes and translates that information into equivalently coded light pulses. A light-emitting diode (LED) or an injection-laser diode (ILD) can be used for generating the light pulses.

Using a lens, the light pulses are funnelled into the fibre-optic medium where they travel down the cable. The light (near infrared) is most often 850nm for shorter distances and 1,300nm for longer distances on Multi-mode fibre and 1300nm for single-mode fibre and 1,500nm is used for longer distances.

Think of a fibre cable like a very long cardboard roll (such as the inside roll of paper towel) that is coated with a mirror on the inside. If you shine a flashlight in one end you can see light come out at the far end – even if it’s been bent around a corner.

Total internal reflection

Light pulses move easily down the fibre-optic line because of a principle known as total internal reflection. This principle states that when the angle of incidence exceeds a critical value, light cannot get out of the glass; instead, the light bounces back in. When this principle is applied to the construction of the fibre-optic strand, it is possible to transmit information down fibre lines in the form of light pulses. The core must be a very clear and pure material for the light or in most cases near infrared light (850nm, 1300nm and 1500nm).

The core can be plastic (used for very short distances) but most are made from glass. Glass optical fibres are almost always made from pure silica, but some other materials, such as fluorozirconate, fluoroaluminate, and chalcogenide glasses, are used for longer-wavelength infrared applications.


  • Fibre optic networks can operate at high speeds – up to  gigabits per second.
  • A large bandwidth allows for a large carrying capacity.
  • Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be amplified.
  • Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables.
  • Fibre optic cables cost much less to maintain.


Telephone companies began early on, replacing their old copper wire systems with optical fibre lines. Today’s telephone companies use optical fibre throughout their system as the backbone architecture and as the long-distance connection between city phone systems.

Cable television services, college and university campuses, office buildings, industrial plants, and electric utility companies are some other examples of system users who would also benefit from fibre optic cable.

Also, power companies are an emerging group that have begun to utilize fibre-optics in their communication systems. Most power utilities already have fibre-optic communication systems in use for monitoring their power grid systems.


There are three main types of fibre optic cable:

1. Singlemode: single path through the fibre

Singlemode cable is a single strand of glass fibre with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission. It has a relatively narrow diameter, through which only one mode will propagate (typically 1310 or 1550nm). It carries a higher bandwidth than multimode fibre, but requires a light source with a narrow spectral width.

Singlemode fibre is used in many applications where data is sent at multi-frequency (WDM Wave-Division-Multiplexing) so only one cable is needed- (single-mode on one single fibre). It gives you a higher transmission rate and up to 50 times more distance than multimode, but it also costs more. Single-mode fibre has a much smaller core than multimode. The small core and single light-wave virtually eliminate any distortion that could result from overlapping light pulses, providing the least signal attenuation and the highest transmission speeds of any fibre cable type.

Singlemode optical fibre is an optical fibre in which only the lowest order bound mode can propagate at the wavelength of interest typically 1300 to 1320nm. It’s also known as mono-mode optical fibre, singlemode fibre, singlemode optical waveguide and uni-mode fibre.


2. Multimode: multiple paths through the fibre

Multimode fibre has a little bit bigger diameter, with common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component. In most applications in which Multi-mode fibre is used, 2 fibres are used (WDM is not normally used on multi-mode fibre).

Multimode fibre gives you high bandwidth at high speeds (10 to 100MBS – to 275m to 2km) over medium distances. Light waves are dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable’s core typically 850 or 1300nm. Typical multimode fibre core diameters are 50, 62.5, and 100 micrometers. However, in long cable runs (greater than 3000 feet [914.4 meters), multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission, so designers now call for single mode fibre in new applications using Gigabit and beyond.


3. Plastic optical fibre (POF)

POF is a newer plastic-based cable which promises performance similar to glass cable on very short runs, but at a lower cost.

CORE Cabling provides customized expert fibre optic cable installation services. Feel free to contact us to discuss any questions you may have about our fibre optic services and we’d be happy to help.

Cable Management Nightmares for Server Rooms

Maintaining a neat and tidy server room, data centre, or IT closet is critical to your business operations

Server room cable management is almost as important as the servers you have running in your server room or data centre. An oft-neglected but wholly necessary function – especially in space-constrained server rooms and chassis – effective server room cable management needs to be one of your business’s primary considerations.

While server rooms are, in general, considered to be veritable holy rooms and sanctuaries of IT computing power, many are also gnarly, cluttered, dusty, incomprehensible technological disaster zones. Left to fading memories, dust buildup, and tangled cable, what starts out as a disorganized server room can quickly escalate to an IT manager’s worst nightmare; an electronic, indecipherable quagmire of cables and equipment run amok.

It’s been said that some server rooms are the result of poor planning and worse execution. If this is the case at your business, you need to make server room cable management a top priority.

Don’t let this happen to you!


There are three excellent reasons why your company needs an orderly server room with extensive and accurate cable documentation:

  • IT MAKES TROUBLESHOOTING AND UPGRADING FAST AND EASY. When your IT team or go-to server room pro needs to get to the root of a server failure, internet outage, or other technology-related problem, he/she shouldn’t have to spend the first half hour trying to determine which cable to plug in or unplug. Likewise; when upgrading servers and other equipment, a clean and orderly server room makes for replacing or installing gear a more pleasant, manageable, and efficient experience.
  • MESSY SERVER ROOMS ARE A FIRE HAZARD. A rat’s nest of knotted cables, compiling dust, hot metal racks, and the haphazard installation of computing equipment that is always on is but one electrical short away from sparking a fire.
  • AN ORGANIZED SERVER ROOM REDUCES STRESS. The last thing you want is for your new IT or server room manager – or anyone on your staff – to suffer from is elevated levels of stress. Psychological studies have shown clutter and mess increases stress. If your server room is a scene out of a horror film, in all likelihood it’s creating stress for you and your team.


Establishing a professional, clean, and tidy server room begins with practical planning. Do an audit of your server racks, related equipment, patch cables and workstation cable connections. Be sure to document everything as you proceed, and keep records up-to-date.

Measure and test all of your cables, use colour-coded cables and labels to reduce confusion, and bunch cables together using Velcro ties. Furthermore, take advantage of overhead and underfloor cable trays to keep cables clean, secured, and manageable. To control dust, use compressed air in small server rooms to regularly blow dust free of your servers and equipment.

Need assistance getting your small server room or large data centre efficiently organized? Contact us now.

Patch Cables

Patch cord length is also a big factor in planning your new cable installation.  When installing hundreds of network cables you will most likely have more than one network rack or cabinet.  In this case, patch cable length will be very important.

Purchasing all of your cables at the same length will be detrimental to the look and management of your network.  You will want to ensure that you have a good variety of patch cable lengths on hand.

If not, you risk filling up all of the cable management with SLACK!  Cable managers become condensed quite quickly with large installations, and cable management should be reserved for future cable additions.

CORE Cabling Inc. can identify your patch cable length requirements to suit your installation.

Patch cable color coding is also another great idea for your network administrators.  If you are managing voice, data, video etc. through one network rack, color coding can save your organization valuable time.

Want more some information on pricing and services? Fill out our Request a Quote form and a member of our staff will contact you shortly to discuss the services you require.

Power Bars or PDU’s

  • Usually these are connected to UPS power and are critical for all of your network devices located in racks or cabinets.
  • Whether metered or non-metered, horizontal or vertical, twist loc or straight blade, switched or switch disabled, CORE Cabling can provide you with assistance in determining your Network’s requirements.
  • Also, consider mounting your PDU’s power source at the top of your rack to prevent cord trip hazards.

Want more some information on pricing and services? Fill out our Request a Quote form and a member of our staff will contact you shortly to discuss the services you require.

Fibre Connectors

Fibre connectors come in different shapes and sizes. Each has its own unique use and cable installation application. Do you know which fibre optic cables are meant to work where?

Here is a list of some common fibre connector types with pictures, and an easy-to-remember naming mechanism:

  • ST Connector: This is an easy one to remember because you need to “twist” it into place. We use the “T” for twist. It actually stands for “straight tip” connector.
  • SC Connector: We remember this one for its resemblance to “square”
  • LC Connector: The LC connector has become the most popular interface for optical line equipment and is well established in fibre backbones.
  • MTRJ Connector: A small form-factor fibre optic connector which resembles the RJ-45 (Ethernet).
  • Fibre Optic Connector types

This is not a complete list of fibre connector types, but they are the most popular. Feel free to contact us for any custom patch cord or configuration. If your existing fibre patch panel, or fibre bay is loaded with ST connectors for example and your new switch comes loaded with the SC type of connector, a ST-SC fibre patch cord at any length is available.

Want more some information on pricing and services? Fill out our Request a Quote form and a member of our staff will contact you shortly to discuss the services you require.

Ten Things to Consider Before Cabling Your New Facility

Are you planning on moving your office or building a new one? If so, one thing you don’t want to overlook is your voice and data structured cabling system. Even though voice and data cabling is so integral to today’s business, it’s still one of the aspects of setting up a new office that often gets left as an afterthought.

1. Contact Your Provider.

The first thing we suggest is to contact your service provider to schedule the move of your voice and data lines/accounts. Many service providers, like Bell, for instance, can take up to 3 months to schedule a move. If you know the details of your destination address it’s best to line this up as far in advance as possible, to make sure they get it on their schedule.

2. Do Drawings!

Do you have a drawing of your new site? If so, you should have a copy that outlines where your voice and data connections will terminate. If your project is large, you would do well by contacting CORE Cabling or an engineering firm that specializes in communications to help you plot out the terminations. Multiple connections for voice and data can get very complicated very quickly. Mapping everything out properly in advance is key to a smooth installation.

3. Make Room.

Choose a network/wiring room that is the right size. This is crucial for future growth. Too often we see brand new sites allot only a fraction of the space required for a network room. You can’t just pile your racks into a coat closet and hope for the best! When you’re determining your space allotment, we also recommend you leave enough room to add at least one additional rack or cabinet in the future. Also, try to lay out your room with enough space to have an open stepladder on all sides of your racks and/or cabinets. Believe us, this will save a ton of headaches down the line.

4. Choose an Able Cable Type.

Cable type is another important factor we are asked about constantly. Category 5e and Category 6 cable have many similarities. The main difference between Cat 5e and Cat 6 cable is transmission performance and the available bandwidth between 100mhz (Cat 5e) and 200mhz (Cat 6). Consider the fact that the cost between the two cable types is not as significant as it once was, and Category 6 will give you added future-proofing as data transmission continues to evolve.

5. Wi-Fi Survey? Because.

As the next generation of data users emerges, so will the increased need for a Wi-Fi solution for your office or facility. A great ensure successful Wi-Fi deployment is a Wi-Fi survey. A Wi-Fi survey will provide the detailed information necessary to roll out a solution. Contact CORE Cabling for a Wi-Fi quote or for more information on how to predict wireless access point placement.

6. Closet Organizing.

Is your site large enough that you will require multiple wiring closets? Typically the 100m rule applies to all copper cabling. Once that limit is exceeded, cables will fail a standardized test. In order to keep things under that limit, a secondary network cabling closet will be required. These are also referred to as IDF’s. When preparing for multiple IDF’s, using fibre optic cable is the best solution. We can do a whole section on fibre alone, so feel free to reach out to CORE Cabling for a fibre solution that will meet your needs.

7. Of Your Own A COREd.

Cable pathways and floor coring often gets overlooked but is crucial for the finished look and feel of your site. For instance, do you have a boardroom? If so, you will likely want a cable or two to the middle of the table. In order to do this, you will require either a hole cored or a trench cut out of the concrete to ensure a safe transition of electrical and data/voice cabling to the middle of the table. As well, you can always look to CORE as your Connectrac installer.

8. Stay Cool.

Cooling your network room is very important and should be at (or at least near) the top of your checklist when planning your move. Please consult a qualified HVAC company for more information.

9. Feature Upgrade?

When planning your move, you may want to consider a new feature-rich phone system. There are many different types of phone systems; VOIP, hosted, digital, analog. Depending on your needs, CORE can assist you with making this important decision.

10. Smooth Move.

Just as cabling is an integral part of the network infrastructure so is the actual physical move of your desktop and server room technology, which needs careful planning. CORE can coordinate your move from start to finish. We do a full audit of your server/computer room equipment and all connections. We then “bag and tag” all of the equipment and desktop technology, then move to your new office where we re-install and verify connectivity to your internal network as well as the outside world. CORE will make your move seamless; just leave it to the experts.

Get the right advice. CORE has been installing structured data and cabling solutions for countless clients in various industries. In short, we’ve probably seen it all. Get in touch with us to tell us about your project—we’d be happy to help you make structured cabling migration a smooth part of your move.

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Li-Fi Promises a Bright Future for Internet Connectivity

Estimated to be 100 times faster than Wi-Fi and more secure, a light-based technology known as Light Fidelity will, in due time, transform how we connect to the Internet

Growing tired of the herky-jerky nature of Wi-Fi? An emerging technology that was seemingly light-years away from reality not long ago called Light Fidelity, or Li-Fi, is now on the cusp of arrival, heralding a new and improved age in wireless communication technology.

Similar to Wi-Fi, Li-Fi is a bidirectional, high-speed networked wireless communication technology but it uses visible light waves instead of radio frequency waves to transmit data. Unlike Wi-Fi, Li-Fi is estimated to be about 100 times faster at transmitting data using light-emitting diode (LED) light bulbs that are integrated with a Li-Fi chip.

Li-Fi is a subset of optical wireless communications operating in what’s known as the visible light communication (VLC) spectrum. The promise this breakthrough technology offers versus Wi-Fi in terms of vastly improved data transmission with the blistering high speeds it provides is instantly noteworthy ‘ estimated to be capable of transmitting data at 1-gigabit per second or more via a typical white-light LED. And as the visible light spectrum is 10,000 times larger than the entire radio frequency spectrum Wi-Fi runs on, Li-Fi has virtually no restrictive limitations on it with respect to capacity. Moreover, it’s less of a security risk than Wi-Fi in that a beam of light can’t be hacked and it is expected to be much cheaper to use than Wi-Fi.

However, there are downsides to Li-Fi. For instance, Li-Fi is for short range applications: it only works when a device is in the direct line of sight of the light source transmitting the data. As it cannot penetrate walls, it may not be the panacea everyone is hoping will consign Wi-Fi and Wi-Fi routers and access points to the dustbin of technological history. Also, Li-Fi cannot be used outdoors during daylight. Plus, although Li-Fi is touted to be much cheaper to run and maintain than Wi-Fi, different systems produced by competing providers can vary in cost, high installation charges could be a factor, and it could get pricey having lights on all of the time.


Whenever a groundbreaking, new technology comes to the fore excitement (and media hype) ensues. It’s understandable. When the concept of Wi-Fi first popped up on the general public’s radar (sometime in the late 1990s) the ability to be untethered from a wired connection and free to roam while still having access to the Internet generated much enthusiasm for the advancement. Though Wi-Fi is not the end-all, be-all of wireless connectivity, it’s unlikely Li-Fi will render Wi-Fi obsolete.

An alternative to Wi-Fi as we know it today is required, though. We’re connecting more and more physical objects wirelessly to the Internet annually, in turn creating a looming spectrum crisis in wireless communications. The deluge of what’s known as the Internet of Things (IoT) will continue unabated ‘ connecting everything to the ‘Net from computers to vehicles to household appliances to machinery in manufacturing plants. According to technology research firm predictions, there will be more than 20 billion IoT devices connected online by 2020. It’s estimated the total number of IoT devices accessing the Internet in 2015 is approximately 4.9 billion.

It’s important to remember Li-Fi is still in the development stage. Research into VLC has been ongoing since 2003 but it is far from complete. In the short-term, Wi-Fi will remain the dominant technology, but Li-Fi holds great promise. In due time, there will be several reasons to consider a Li-Fi installation at your business including:

It’s more secure than Wi-Fi and it doesn’t require wireless encryption. A typical drywall provides all the security you need

IoT-enabled objects use inexpensive optical components such as off-the-shelf LEDs, photodetectors, and transceivers

Li-Fi is ideal for high density coverage in a confined region and provides lightning-fast download and data transmission speeds

Anywhere you see a light bulb therein lies a potential source for high-speed data transmission


Despite the challenges that exist today for Li-Fi’s continuing development and its subsequent widespread adoption ‘ a lack of an updated standard governing VLC established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is perhaps the biggest hurdle ‘ the future of Li-Fi appears bright indeed.

Regardless of what unfolds with Li-Fi or Wi-Fi there’s one critical point to bear in mind few people are talking about: wireless technologies still need to be fed by a category 6 network cable via a quality structured cable installation done by experienced technicians.

While the notion of accessing the Internet at the speed of light and the potential for vastly improved and more efficient communication systems are tantalizing, Wi-Fi is here to stay for a few years yet. Thus, if your Wi-Fi coverage isn’t where you need it to be, it’s possible the design of your network is inadequate for the demands placed on it.

Be sure to choose a team of experienced structured cabling technicians to conduct any assessment or wireless installation projects you undertake. Your wireless services should never be compromised by an inferior installation or equipment.

What makes the CORE Cabling team different is we understand every structured cabling system is unique, just as your business is unique. Based on industry best practices and certified technical standards, we guarantee our work and we pride ourselves on exceeding our customers’ expectations. Have questions about your Wi-Fi network or wireless services in general? Contact us, or request a quote!